The final major focus of the NDML is the manufacturing of nanoscale materials and devices for nanoelectronics, structural, and sensing applications. One of the biggest current challenges in nanomanufacturing is the integration of nanomaterials and mechanisms with micro- and macroscale structures to create repeatable devices. This type of multi-scale integration is necessary because nanoscale materials and mechanisms typically need to interact with the larger world around them in order to produce useful devices and products. However, the three to six order-of-magnitude scale mismatch between the nano and the macro worlds can cause problems since small changes in force, displacement or temperature can have vastly different effects on nanoscale and macroscale structures. In addition, it is generally difficult to find micro- and macroscale tools that can be used to quickly and effectively manipulate nanoscale materials and mechanisms. Therefore, new methods such as large scale patterning and directed assembly of nanomaterials need to be developed to simplify and optimize the integration of nanoscale materials and mechanisms. In addition, the NDML works on developing micro- and nanoscale device designs that can compensate for errors in the assembly of nanomaterials within the functional device structure.